Showing posts with label Unemployment.   Show all posts

Okun’s Law in Black and White

My paper “Okun’s Law: Fit at Fifty?” (with Larry Ball and Daniel Leigh) has now been published in the October 2017 issue of the Journal of Money, Credit & Banking. For those without access to the journal, here is a link to the penultimate version of the paper, which also provides the data and programs needed to replicate the results of the paper. The main result of the paper is that, fifty five years after it was proposed, Okun’s Law remains visible to the naked eye (see the chart below). We find that, for the United States, Okun’s Law is fairly stable and held up during the Great Recession, substantiating predictions that Paul Krugman made in 2011. We also provide evidence for several other advanced economies, such as Spain and Germany.

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My paper “Okun’s Law: Fit at Fifty?” (with Larry Ball and Daniel Leigh) has now been published in the October 2017 issue of the Journal of Money, Credit & Banking. For those without access to the journal, here is a link to the penultimate version of the paper, which also provides the data and programs needed to replicate the results of the paper. The main result of the paper is that,

Read the full article…

Posted by at 2:13 PM

Labels: Unemployment

Are Emissions Decoupling from Growth?

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Recent discussions of the extent of decoupling between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and real gross domestic product (GDP) provide mixed evidence and have generated much debate. We show that to get a clear picture of decoupling it is important to distinguish cycles from trends: there is an Environmental Okun’s Law (a cyclical relationship between emissions and real GDP) that often obscures the trend relationship between emissions and real GDP. We show that, once the cyclical relationship is accounted for, the trends show evidence of decoupling in richer nations—particularly in European countries, but not yet in emerging markets. The picture changes somewhat, however, if we take into consideration the effects of international trade, that is, if we distinguish between production-based and consumption-based emissions. Once we add in their net emission transfers, the evidence for decoupling among the richer countries gets weaker. The good news is that countries with underlying policy frameworks more supportive of renewable energy and supportive of climate change tend to have greater decoupling between trend emissions and trend GDP, and for both production- and consumption-based emissions.

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Continue reading here.

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Recent discussions of the extent of decoupling between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and real gross domestic product (GDP) provide mixed evidence and have generated much debate. We show that to get a clear picture of decoupling it is important to distinguish cycles from trends: there is an Environmental Okun’s Law (a cyclical relationship between emissions and real GDP) that often obscures the trend relationship between emissions and real GDP. We show that,

Read the full article…

Posted by at 3:48 PM

Labels: Unemployment

Inequality in China – Trends, Drivers, and Policy Remedies

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A new IMF reports finds that “China has grown rapidly and is on the brink of eradicating poverty. However, income inequality increased sharply from the early 1980s. While less equality is to be expected in the transition from central planning to a market-based economy, China is now among the most unequal countries in the world, despite a recent modest improvement.

Inequality has been driven by structural factors (especially demographics, the urban/rural divide and education/skills), with little offset from fiscal policies. These structural factors are likely to drive inequality higher.

This calls for more proactive use of fiscal policies to reduce inequality. On the revenue side: (1) increasing the progressivity of social security contributions and of personal and property taxes. On the spending side: (2) boosting social spending and promoting equal access across provinces and regardless of residency.”

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Continue reading here.

 

Capture1

A new IMF reports finds that “China has grown rapidly and is on the brink of eradicating poverty. However, income inequality increased sharply from the early 1980s. While less equality is to be expected in the transition from central planning to a market-based economy, China is now among the most unequal countries in the world, despite a recent modest improvement.

Inequality has been driven by structural factors (especially demographics,

Read the full article…

Posted by at 10:11 AM

Labels: Unemployment

Japan’s Lifetime Employment and Gender Inequality

A new IMF report finds that “Societal attitudes in which males contribute to household work could be a powerful lever both to increase female labor force participation, and increase fertility. If women can get more child rearing support from their husbands, it would be easier for them to continue to work. However, with 85 percent of full-time employees working overtime, it is difficult in reality to share the childcare burdens among a working couple if both of them have regular works. Men’s commitment to house work and family responsibilities can have a significant impact on fertility. Data suggests that the more time spent by a husband in house work and childcare, the higher the changes that couples will have a second child.”

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Continue reading here.

A new IMF report finds that “Societal attitudes in which males contribute to household work could be a powerful lever both to increase female labor force participation, and increase fertility. If women can get more child rearing support from their husbands, it would be easier for them to continue to work. However, with 85 percent of full-time employees working overtime, it is difficult in reality to share the childcare burdens among a working couple if both of them have regular works.

Read the full article…

Posted by at 9:44 AM

Labels: Unemployment

Ten Ways to Expand U.S. Growth

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“With the economy at full employment, the United States will need to gradually remove both fiscal and monetary support, while intensifying efforts to address multiple constraints on its medium-term growth prospects, ” a new IMF report says that “These constraints include weak productivity growth, an aging population, falling labor force participation, an increasingly polarized income distribution, and high levels of poverty. These growing headwinds are made worse by a share of income paid to workers that is nearly 4 percentage points lower than that in the early 2000s, a middle class that has shrunk to its smallest size over the past 30 years, and a potential growth rate that is virtually the lowest since the 1940s.” It also offers the following solutions:

“1. Getting the economic policy mix right.

2. Reforming the tax system.

3. Improving infrastructure.

4. Revitalizing trade.

5. Supporting low- and middle-income households.

6. Adopting a skills-based immigration reform.

7. Protecting the financial sector.

8. Simplifying federal regulations.

9. Strengthening healthcare coverage.

10. Minimizing the unintended consequences of technology and import penetration.”

Continue reading here.

 

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“With the economy at full employment, the United States will need to gradually remove both fiscal and monetary support, while intensifying efforts to address multiple constraints on its medium-term growth prospects, ” a new IMF report says that “These constraints include weak productivity growth, an aging population, falling labor force participation, an increasingly polarized income distribution, and high levels of poverty. These growing headwinds are made worse by a share of income paid to workers that is nearly 4 percentage points lower than that in the early 2000s,

Read the full article…

Posted by at 1:09 PM

Labels: Unemployment

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