Inclusive Growth

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International Effects of Stock Market Dispersion

From a new paper on the effects of stock market dispersion:

“We study the extent to which stock market dispersion is related to unemployment and output growth for 16 countries over 20 years. Using panel vector-auto-regressions and panel dynamic regressions, we find increases in stock market dispersion across industries to induce future increases in unemployment and
future decreases in industrial production (IP) growth. Moreover, the responses of unemployment and IP growth following a positive shock to stock market dispersion are persistent and are robust to various controls, sample periods, and estimation methods. Our article provides cross-country evidence in support of the hypothesis that shifts in demand across industries negatively affect employment.”

“We present the impulse responses of the unemployment rate and the change in the interest rate to a positive one-standard-deviation shock to stock market dispersion in the upper subfigure of Figure 2. […] Overall, we find an increase in stock market dispersion to have a negative impact on the labor market in the short term, as evidenced by the positive response of the unemployment rate. Specifically, the unemployment rate increases by 0.02% following a positive one-standard-deviation shock to stock market dispersion. This increase peaks after the seventh month and gradually fades away after 15–20 months. Despite its modest magnitude at peak (0.02%), the impact of stock market dispersion on the unemployment rate is relatively long-lived, with the responses lasting beyond the 20-month horizon. Our result is consistent with previous studies that use U.S. data (e.g., Loungani, Rush, and Tave 1990, and more recently Angelidis, Sakkas, and Tessaromatis 2015) in the sense that unemployment significantly depends on the lags of stock market dispersion.”

 

From a new paper on the effects of stock market dispersion:

“We study the extent to which stock market dispersion is related to unemployment and output growth for 16 countries over 20 years. Using panel vector-auto-regressions and panel dynamic regressions, we find increases in stock market dispersion across industries to induce future increases in unemployment and
future decreases in industrial production (IP) growth. Moreover, the responses of unemployment and IP growth following a positive shock to stock market dispersion are persistent and are robust to various controls,

Read the full article…

Posted by at 10:00 AM

Labels: Inclusive Growth

The (Subjective) Well-Being Cost of Fiscal Policy Shocks

From a new paper by IMF colleagues Kodjovi M. Eklou and Mamour Fall:

“Do discretionary spending cuts and tax increases hurt social well-being? To answer this question, we combine subjective well-being data covering over half a million of individuals across 13 European countries, with macroeconomic data on fiscal consolidations. We find that fiscal consolidations reduce individual well-being in the short run, especially when they are based on spending cuts. In addition, we show that accompanying monetary and exchange rate policies (disinflation, depreciations and the liberalization of capital flows) mitigate the well-being cost of fiscal consolidations. Finally, we investigate the well-being consequences of the two well-knowns expansionary fiscal consolidations episodes taking place in the 80s (in Denmark and Ireland). We find that even expansionary fiscal consolidations can have well-being costs. Our results may therefore shed some light on why some governments may choose to consolidate through taxes even at the cost of economic growth. Indeed, if spending cuts are to generate a large well-being loss, they can trigger an opposition and protest against a fiscal consolidation plan and hence making it politically costly.”

“Figure 4 depicts the effect of a 1 percentage point of GDP increase in the size of a fiscal consolidation conditional on being accompanied by different level of depreciation in the sample. Figure 4 shows that for higher levels of depreciation, that is for ratios of at least 6 units of local currencies per USD, fiscal consolidations do not have any statistically significant effect on well-being.”

From a new paper by IMF colleagues Kodjovi M. Eklou and Mamour Fall:

“Do discretionary spending cuts and tax increases hurt social well-being? To answer this question, we combine subjective well-being data covering over half a million of individuals across 13 European countries, with macroeconomic data on fiscal consolidations. We find that fiscal consolidations reduce individual well-being in the short run, especially when they are based on spending cuts. In addition,

Read the full article…

Posted by at 9:55 AM

Labels: Inclusive Growth

Finance and Inequality

From a new paper by IMF colleagues–Martin Cihak and Ratna Sahay:

“Global income inequality has fallen in the past two decades, in large part due to major strides in emerging market and developing economies to raise economic growth rates and reduce poverty. Financial sector policies and advances in financial technology are enabling financial inclusion, particularly in large economies such as China and India, allowing an increasing number of low-income households and small businesses to participate productively in the formal economy.

At the same time, we observe rising or high disparities in income and wealth within many countries. New data also show that economic mobility—the ability of the less well-off to improve their economic status—has stalled in recent decades. No wonder then that inequality of income, wealth, and opportunities is giving rise to populism and anti-globalization sentiments in some countries.

Can the financial sector play a role in reducing inequality? This study makes the case that it can, complementing redistributive fiscal policy in mitigating inequality. By expanding the provision of financial services to low-income households and small businesses, it can serve as a powerful lever in helping create a more inclusive society but—if not well managed—it can also amplify inequalities.

Our study examines empirical relationships between income inequality and three features of finance: depth (financial sector size relative to the economy), inclusion (access to and use of financial services by individuals and firms), and stability (absence of financial distress). We ask three questions.

First, does greater financial depth mean lower or higher inequality within countries? Building on new data sets, our analysis suggests that initially financial depth is associated with lower inequality, but only up to a point, after which inequality rises.

Second, does greater financial inclusion mean lower inequality within countries? We find that greater financial inclusion is associated with reductions in inequality. For payment services, we find evidence that benefits from inclusion are greater for those at the low end of the income distribution, reducing inequality. Both men and women benefit from financial inclusion, but inequality falls more when women have greater access. As regards access to and use of credit, the results are mixed.

Third, is there a relationship between stability and inequality within countries? Our study finds that higher inequality is associated with greater financial risks. Increases in inequality tend to be accompanied by higher growth in credit. For example, in the United States, too much credit, including to lower-income households, contributed to the 2008 crisis. Crises, in turn, lead to higher default rates, making lower-income households worse off and increasing inequality after a crisis.

Our key takeaway is that finance can help reduce inequality but is also associated with greater inequality if the financial system is not well managed. Our findings have five policy implications. First, financial inclusion policies help reduce inequality. Second, there is a case for promoting women’s financial inclusion, as inequality falls even more when policies are inclusive of women. Third, regulatory policies have a role to play in reining in excessive growth of the financial sector. Fourth, provided quality of regulation and supervision is high, financial inclusion and stability can be pursued simultaneously. Fifth, financial sector policies are a complement, not a substitute, for other policy tools—fiscal and macro-structural policies are still needed to help address inequality.”

From a new paper by IMF colleagues–Martin Cihak and Ratna Sahay:

“Global income inequality has fallen in the past two decades, in large part due to major strides in emerging market and developing economies to raise economic growth rates and reduce poverty. Financial sector policies and advances in financial technology are enabling financial inclusion, particularly in large economies such as China and India, allowing an increasing number of low-income households and small businesses to participate productively in the formal economy.

Read the full article…

Posted by at 10:58 AM

Labels: Inclusive Growth

Quality Upgrading and Export Performance in the Asian Growth Miracle

Interesting paper by Chris Papageorgiou , Fidel Perez-Sebastian and Nikola Spatafora:

“We explore the contribution of product-quality upgrading to the export performance of six fast-growing Asian economies: China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand. We focus on measuring the impact of quality upgrading on the changes in these countries’ sectoral export shares during 1970–2010. We build a multisector Ricardian trade model which allows for changes in product quality, and calibrate it to generate predictions about export volumes. Unlike previous literature, our approach allows estimation without employing domestic production data. Our results point to quality upgrading being a key driver of export shares.”

Interesting paper by Chris Papageorgiou , Fidel Perez-Sebastian and Nikola Spatafora:

“We explore the contribution of product-quality upgrading to the export performance of six fast-growing Asian economies: China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand. We focus on measuring the impact of quality upgrading on the changes in these countries’ sectoral export shares during 1970–2010. We build a multisector Ricardian trade model which allows for changes in product quality,

Read the full article…

Posted by at 6:19 PM

Labels: Inclusive Growth

The Old Boys’ Club: Schmoozing and the Gender Gap

From a new working paper by Zoe Cullen (Harvard University) and Ricardo Perez-Truglia (UCLA):

“The old boys’ club refers to the alleged advantage that male employees have over their female counterparts in interacting with powerful men. For example, male employees may schmooze with their managers in ways that female employees cannot. We study this phenomenon using data from a large financial institution. We use an event study analysis of manager rotation to estimate the causal effect of managers’ gender on their employees’ career progression. We find that when male employees are assigned to male managers, they are promoted faster in the following years than they would have been if they were assigned to female managers. Female employees, on the contrary, have the same career progression regardless of the manager’s gender. These differences in career progression cannot be explained by differences in effort or output. This male-to-male advantage can explain a third of the gender gap in promotions. Moreover, we provide suggestive evidence that these manager effects are due to socialization between male employees and male managers. We show that these manager effects are present only if the employee works in close proximity to the manager. We use survey data to show that, after transitioning to a male manager, male employees spend more time with their managers. Finally, we study a shock to socialization within males, based on the anecdotal evidence that employees who smoke tend to spend more time together. We find that when male employees who smoke switch to male managers who smoke, they spend more of their breaks with their managers and are promoted faster in the following years. Moreover, the effects of these smoking manager switches are similar in timing and magnitude to the effects of the gender manager switches.”

From a new working paper by Zoe Cullen (Harvard University) and Ricardo Perez-Truglia (UCLA):

“The old boys’ club refers to the alleged advantage that male employees have over their female counterparts in interacting with powerful men. For example, male employees may schmooze with their managers in ways that female employees cannot. We study this phenomenon using data from a large financial institution. We use an event study analysis of manager rotation to estimate the causal effect of managers’

Read the full article…

Posted by at 10:19 AM

Labels: Inclusive Growth

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